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The biggest concern with all evergreens is winter burn. This usually becomes evident in early spring as temperatures warm and the damaged needles take on a bright orange color. The damage is the result of the foliage (needles) dehydrating. The way to avoid winter damage is to ensure an even supply of water in September and October, providing 1" of water a week in dry seasons.
Evergreens (conifers) can be transplanted in both Spring and Fall. The ideal time to transplant is very early Autumn, from the 1st of September to the end of September. During this time the trees will develop root system, and become established before winter. The following Spring, the will resume growth with little reduction in their growth rate.
TECHNEY (Thuja occidentalis ‘Techney’) Height: 20’, Width: 15’. Full sun to full shade. A medium growing broad based arborvitae known as the hardiest of the cold-weather arborvitae cultivars. Dark green foliage responds well to shearing, and can be used as a specimen or for hedges. Techney exhibits excellent resistance to winterburn, and has a higher tolerance to salt damage than White Cedar, making the preferred choice in areas near streets and roads. Will grow in most soils, but avoid wet heavy soils and highly alkaline conditions. Growing zones 3 to 7.
WHITE (Thuja occidentalis) Height: 40’, Width:20’-30’. Full sun to part shade. Also known as American Arborvitae. A fast growing native evergreen with soft, flat, bright green foliage. A larger tree than Techney Arborvitae, it is easily shaped by shearing, and can be used singly as a specimen or hedged. Can suffer damage from deer browsing. Best on well drained soils, but once established can tolerate drier conditions as well as damp (not water logged) soils. Not as salt tolerant as Techney Arborvitae. Growing zones 3 to 7.
BALSAM (Abies balsamea) Height: 50’-70’, Width: 20’-25’. Full sun to part shade. A native tree with a distinctly pyramidal shape that is often used for Christmas trees. Foliage is soft, fragrant, and dark green. A medium to fast grower which performs best on well drained soils, but will tolerate slightly wetter conditions. Because of its narrow form (stays more narrow than spruce varieties), it can be used in smaller spaces than some other upright conifers. Easily sheared to increase density and shape. Growing zones 3 to 5.
AMERICAN (Larix laricina) Height: 40’-60’, Width: 15’-25’. Full sun. More commonly known as Tamarack. Often overlooked as an ornamental choice, this fast growing, native deciduous conifer (drops it needles each fall) displays soft and slender 1” bright green needles. The needles turn an outstanding gold in late fall and drop after all other trees have shed their leaves. Prefers deep, moist soils, and can tolerate boggy conditions, but will produce good growth rates in average soils as well. Growing zones 2 to 5.
RED (Pinus resinosa) Height: 50’-70’, Width: 40’. Full sun. Commonly known as Norway Pine. A medium growing native pine capable of growing on tough sites. Needles are 5”-6” long, medium to dark green in clusters of 2. Prefers well drained soils and will perform well on sandy, gravelly acid soils. More durable and resistant to winter burn, it is a better choice than White Pine in areas where it will be exposed to winter winds. If a dense appearance is desired, shearing will be required as its natural form is somewhat open. Growing zones 2 to 5.
WHITE (Pinus strobes) Height: 60’-80’, Width:25’-40’. Full sun to part shade. A fast growing native pine with 2” to 4” long soft medium green needles. A beautiful specimen tree, it performs best when afforded some winter protection from winds. Prefers well drained soils, but is adaptable. In its natural form it will produce a broad, pyramidal shape, but may be sheared to create a more dense form. Deer prefer to browse the new growth, so avoid planting or protect if deer are present. Growing zones 3 to 7. Limited Spring 2017 availability.
BLACK HILLS (Picea glauca ‘Densata’) Height: 30’-40’, Width: 20’-25’. Full sun. A slower growing subspecies of White Spruce that is native to the Black Hills of South Dakota. Short dark green needles with a compact dense form and medium growth rate well suited for specimen planting as well as screens and windbreaks. Best on well drained soils, but it will grow on dry soils once established. Can be sheared to make it even more compact and dense. Displays excellent resistance to winter burn. Growing zones 3 to 6.
COLORADO (Picea pungens) Height: 40’-60’, Width: 15’-25’. Full sun. Often called ‘Blue Spruce’, the needle color can vary from medium green to silvery blue. A medium growth rate tree with 1-¼” long, stiff needles. Native to the Rocky mountains, it is less tolerant than other spruce varieties of our humid summer climate, which leaves it prone to needlecast disease if not planted in areas with good air circulation. Can be sheared to create a more dense appearance. Prefers well drained soils. Growing zones 3 to 7.
ISELI FASTIGIT (Picea pungens 'Iseli Fastigiate') Height: 10'-15', Width: 5' - 6'. Full sun. A slow growing spruce with a distinct upright form. This grafted cultivar of Colorado spruce displays bright blue rigid needles and dense foliage, making it an ideal choice for smaller areas where an upright form is desired. Because of its compact growth, it can even be used in foundation planting. Requires little to no shearing to maintain its form. Performs best on well drained soils, and will grow on drier sites. Growing zones 3 to 7.
NORWAY (Picea abies) Height: 60’-80’, Width: 25’-35’. Full sun. A rapid growing, large evergreen with short, medium to dark green needles. As the tree ages the branches take on a distinctive upward arch. An excellent choice for large areas and windbreaks. A long lived tree that performs best on well drained soils, but will grow on dry soils once established. The most adaptable of the spruce varieties, it withstands harsh winter winds and does not winter burn easily. Requires more space than other Spruce varieties. Growing zones 2 to 6.
WHITE (Picea glauca) Height: 50’-70’, Width: 20’-30’. Full sun. A native spruce with a moderately fast growth rate, and short medium green needles. An excellent choice where a slightly smaller evergreen is desired but where a faster growth rate than Black Hills Spruce is preferred. The parent tree of Black Hills spruce, this is an excellent choice for specimen and windbreaks. Responds well to shearing. Produces it best growth rate in well drained soils, but will grow on dry soils once established. Growing zones 2 to 6.
Evergreen shrubs will perform best with full sun in a well drained acidic soil. Winterburn can be avoided by ensuring adequate amounts of water are available during the fall season (from September until the ground freezes). During dry fall seasons, a weekly watering of 1" water weekly will be sufficient.
BRANDON (Thuja occidentalis ‘Brandon’) Height: 12’-15’, Width: 3’-4’. Full sun to part shade. A slower growing variety than pyramidal arborvitae. Narrow upright form with good resistance to winter burn. Use where pyramidal arborvitae will be too wide or where height is too tall. Will grow in most soils except for extremely wet and extremely dry conditions, and can be easily sheared to contol shape or to form a hedge. Exhibits resistance to winterburn equal to Pyramidal Arborvitae. Growing zones 3 to 7.
HOLMSTRUP (Thuja occidentalis ‘Holmstrup’) Height: 5’-6’, Width: 2’-3’. Full sun to part shade. An outstanding performer in a slow growing dwarf pyramidal form. Unsheared, the shape is broadly pyramidal to slighlty oval with a compact habit and dense form. Can be sheared to refine the shape and control the size even more. Excellent for small spaces or where limited height is desired. Best in well drained acid soils, but adaptable and capable of growing in most conditions except very wet soils. Displays excellent resistence to winter burn. Growing zones 3 to 7.
LITTLE ELFIE (Thuja occidentalis ‘Little Elfie’) Height: 3’, Width: 3’-4’. Full sun to ¾ shade. A low growing rounded form that grows quickly to its mature size. Shearing is not required to maintain a compact size and form. Very good resistance to winter burn. Perfect for short hedges and small spaces. Performs best on well drained soils. Growing zones 3 to 7.
PYRAMIDAL (Thuja occidentalis ‘Pyramidalis’) Height: 15’-20’, Width: 6’-8’. Full sun to ¾ shade. The most common variety of an upright arborvitae. A rapid growing pyramidal form with bright green foliage. A good choice for specimen planting where a strong vertical line is preferred. Because it is very receptive to shearing, its size and shape is easily maitained as desired. Can also be used to create hedges where a wide plant cannot be used and year-round screening is desired. Exhibits good resistance to winterburn. Growing zones 3 to 7.
TECHNITO (Thuja occidentalis 'BailJohn') Height: 6', Width: 30". Full sun to part shade. A compact form of 'Techney' arborvitae. Technito is slower growing, and as a result is more dense when left unsheared. Technito has the attractive dark green color of 'Techney' and retains it throught the winter as well. Froms a compact upright pyramidal form that is an excellent selection for smaller spaces. Will grow in most soils, but will perform best on well drained soils. Growing zones 3 to 7. Photo courtesy of Bailey Nurseries Inc.
TECHNEY (Thuja occidentalis ‘Techney’) Height: 20’, Width: 15’. Full sun to full shade. A medium growing broad based arborvitae known as the hardiest of the cold-weather arborvitae cultivars. Dark green foliage responds well to shearing, and makes excellent hedges. Resistant to winterburn. Will grow in most soils, but avoid wet heavy soils and highly alkaline conditions. Growing zones 3 to 7.
WOODWARD (Thuja occidentalis “Woodwardii’) Height: 8’, Width: 8’. Full sun to ¾ shade. A large variety of globe arborvitae with a rounded form. Fast growing with very good resistance to winter burn. Bright green foliage is receptive to shearing, and as a result is an excellent choice for larger hedges as well as for specimen use. Prefers moist, well drained soils but will grow in drier soils with adequate water. Growing zones 3 to 7.
BLUE CHIP (Juniperus horizontalis ‘Blue Chip’) Height: 8”-10”, Width:3’-5’. Full sun to part shade. A flat growing Juniper with a silvery-blue color during the growing season, turning more bluish - purple in winter. Can tolerate extremely dry conditions. May be sheared to maintain size or shape. Growing zones 3 to 8.
BLUE RUG (Juniperus horizontalis ‘Blue Rug’) Height: 4”-6”, Width: 6’-8’. Full sun to part shade. A fairly fast growing flat variety with intense blue foliage and trailing branches. The soft foliage forms a dense mat that is excellent for groundcover or bank plantings. In retaining walls the foliage drapes gracefully over the edge. Bright blue 1/4" juniper berries adorn the foliage later in the summer. May be trimmed to shape or control size and spread. Hardy and tough, and will tolerate very dry conditions. Growing zones 4 to 9.
PRINCE OF WALES (Juniperus horizontalis ‘Prince of Wales’) Height: 4”-6”, Width: 3’-5’. Full sun to part shade. An extremely flat growing variety with bright green foliage tinged with blue highlights. Tolerant of a wide range of growing conditions, but will perform best on well drained soils. Considered to be among the hardiest of the spreading Junipers. Growing zones 3 to 8.
TAYLOR (Juniperus Virginiana "Taylor") Height: 25', Width: 3'. Full sun. Discovered near Taylor Nebraska in the late 1970's. An alternative to upright forms of Arborvitae where a vertical line is desired. Foliage is a medium green with a hint of gray, darkening slightly in the winter. Perfect for narrow spaces where height is not a concern, but where width must be keep to a minimum. Should not be used in close proximity to apple trees because it is a host for Cedar Apple Rust. Tolerates poor, dry soils and high PH conditions. Growing zones 4 to 7. Photo courtesy of Bailey Nurseries Inc.
MUGO DWARF (Pinus mugo pumilo) Height: 2'-4', Width: 2'-4'. Full sun or part shade. A slow growing compact form of Mugo pine. Mounded form can be maintained with an annual shearing. Drought tolerant and compact, this selection is perfect for foundation planting. Avoid wet conditions. Growing zones 3 to 7.
TAUNTON (Taxus x media ‘Tauntonii’) Height: 3’-4’, Width: 5’-6’. Full sun to full shade. Narrow dark green, soft, flat needles on a vase shaped medium growing plant. Often used as a specimen plant, it can also be used for hedging. Produces small red berries in fall. Winter burn resistant and capable of being grown in full sun. Performs best in well drained soils. Avoid wet conditions. Growing zones 4 to 7.